Bireswar Sen was born in 1897 at Calcutta to Rai Bahadur Saileswar Sen, Professor of Literature at the Calcutta University and his wife, Mrs. Niharnalini Sen.
He came into contact with Abanindranath Tagore and Nandalal Bose in 1917 and stayed with the Indian Society of Oriental Art in Calcutta for six years.
After obtaining M.A. in English Literature from the Presidency College Calcutta, 1921, he was appointed Lecturer in English at the B.N.College. Patna, 1923.
Bireswar Sen kept in touch with painting, working initially in the style of Abanindranath Tagore and learning from his circle that included Nandalal Bose, Gaganendranath Tagore, the Japanese master, Kampo Arai and others, while teaching literature.
In 1932 he met the Russian painter, Nicholas Roerich, and was deeply influenced by his vision and his style of painting landscapes. He joined the Government School of Arts and Crafts at Lucknow as Headmaster in 1926. He held different positions there and was appointed member and Secretary of the Poster Design Committee, Rural Development Department, Government of U.P. and Founder-Director of the Central Design Center at Lucknow.
Amongst his illustrious students one finds Saradindu Sen Roy, Frank Wessley, Rabinder Singh Bisht, Pronoy Roy, Bhabani Charan Guin, Rabindra Nath Ghosh, Harish Chandra and many others. Bireswar Sen won renown as a painter of landscapes and exhibited at several art exhibitions in India and abroad.
His paintings were acquired by, among others, the Central Museum at Lahore, the Travancore State Gallery, the State Gallery of Mysore, the Municipal Museum at Allahabad and the Provinical Museum at Lucknow. Exhibitions of his paintings were held at London, Paris, Berlin, Tokyo, Java, New York, Calcutta, Bombay, Madras, Delhi, Lahore, Lucknow, Simla, Darjeeling and Naini Tal amongst other venues. In his lifetime his works also entered the collections of such eminent people as H.E. Lord Irwin, H.E. Lord Hailey, H.E. Lord Ronaldshay (Marquess of Zetland), H.E. Lord Carmichael, H.E. Sir Harry Haig, H.E. Sir Maurice Hallet, the Hon’ble Sir Maurice Gwyer, Sir William Vincent, Sir Francis Stewart, Sir Reginald Clarke, Sir Frank Noyce, Sir V.T. Krishnamachari, Mr. T.B.W. Bishop, I.C.S., Mr. R.V. Vernede, I.C.S. Mr. M.S. Randhawa, I.C.S., A.G. Shireff Esq. I.C.S., R. Dayal, Esq., I.C.S., Anna Pavlova, Their Highnesses the Maharajas of Patiala, Mysore, Tranvancore, the Countess of Lytton, H.H. theMaharani of Coochbehar, Sri Rabindra Nath Tagore, Sri Dorab Tata, Mr. G.M. Harper, I.C.S., Mr. N.C. Mehta I.C.S., Mr. A.N. Sapru, I.C.S., Dr. Panna Lal I.C.S., Mr. Amarnath Jha, Mr. Justice Varma, theMaharaja of Burdwan and many others.
Bireswar Sen kept on painting till the very end of his life in September 10, 1974.